Mali – Djenné

Anthropologist : Jean Paul Colleyn (EHESS)
Field assistant : Mengoro Sanogo, Adaman Coulibaly

If one were to define civilization etymologically as the creation of cities, then Mali, at a very early stage, played a major role thanks to the towns that lie south of the Sahara: Gao, Dia, Timbuktu, Djenne.
Since Antiquity, African societies were in permanent contact with one another.