Cult Umbanda and Mina Umbanda
Anthropologists : Veronique Boyer , Marc Augé (EHESS) Belem 1993
Possession cults of African origin have found their way into Brazil’s large cities. The Umbanda and Mina cults set themselves apart, in that the human and spirit world are very closely related.
The mediums, who to a large extent are women, do not undergo an initiation in the true sense, but are called upon directly by the spirits who chose them to help “suffering mankind”.